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Function of stepping motor driver

Stepping motor driver is an actuator that can transform the electrical pulse signal it receives into angular displacement. When the stepper motor driver receives an electrical pulse signal, it drives its stepper motor to rotate a fixed angular displacement (we call it “step angle”) according to the originally set direction, and its rotation runs step by step at a fixed angle. We can control the displacement of its angle by controlling the number of pulses it sends, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; At the same time, we can control the speed and acceleration of its stepping motor by controlling the frequency of its pulse signal, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation and positioning.
Widely used in various carving machines, crystal grinders, medium-sized CNC machine tools, EEG embroidery machines, packaging machinery, fountains, dispensing machines, cutting and feeding systems, and so on.

stepping motor driver

The number of phases of stepping motor refers to the number of coils in stepping motor, and commonly used stepping motors are two-phase, three-phase, four-phase and five-phase. The step angle of a common two-phase stepping motor is 1.8 degrees, 3-phase 1.2 degrees and 5-phase 0.72 degrees. When the stepper motor subdivision driver is not configured, the user mainly relies on selecting stepper motors with different phase numbers to meet the request of step angle. If the subdivision driver is used, the phase number will become meaningless, and the user can change the step angle only by changing the subdivision number on the driver.

The subdivision of the stepper motor driver will make a qualitative leap in the running performance of the motor, but all this is produced by the driver itself and has nothing to do with the motor and control system. In application, the only thing that users need to pay attention to is the change of step angle of stepping motor, which will have an impact on the frequency of stepping signal sent by the control system. Since the step angle of stepping motor will become smaller after subdivision, the frequency of stepping signal should be improved accordingly. Take the 1.8-degree stepping motor as an example: the step angle of the driver is 0.9 degrees in the half-step state and 0.18 degrees in the ten-subdivision state, so that the frequency of the stepping signal sent by the control system is five times that of the half-step operation in the ten-subdivision state under the condition of the same speed of the requested motor.

The precision of common stepping motor is 3~5% of stepping angle. The deviation of stepping motor in one step will not affect the precision of the next step, so the precision of stepping motor will not accumulate.