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Working principle of servo motor

Servo motor is a kind of engine that controls mechanical and electronic components in servo system, and it is one of the simple and variable speed electronic devices of auxiliary motor. Servo motor can convert voltage signal into torque and exclusive to drive control object. Servo motor rotor speed is controlled by the input signal, and has the characteristics of quick response, which is usually used in the executive components of automatic control system. Servo motor is characterized by no autorotation phenomenon when the signal voltage is zero, and the speed will decrease at a constant speed with the increase of torque.

Servo motor can convert the received electrical signal into angular displacement or angular velocity on the motor shaft.
Servo motors could be divided into DC servo motors and AC servo motors.

servo motor

Working principle of servo motor:

When the servo motor receives a pulse, it will rotate at an angle corresponding to one pulse, thus realizing displacement. When the servo motor rotates at an angle, it will send out a corresponding number of pulses, which will form a closed loop with the pulses received by the servo motor. The automatic control system will know how many pulses have been sent to the servo motor and how many pulses have been received to the automatic control system.

DC servo motors are divided into brushed and brushless motors. Brushless motors have low cost, simple structure and large starting torque, but are easy to produce electromagnetic interference. Brushless motor is small in size, fast in response and stable in torque, but its control method is complex.

AC servo motor is divided into synchronous motor and asynchronous motor, and synchronous motor is usually used in motion control, which has a large power range and is suitable for low-speed and stable operation.

Advantages of using servo motor:

  1. precision: realize closed-loop control of position, speed and torque
  2. Rotating speed: Good high-speed performance
  3. Adaptability: Strong overload resistance
  4. Stable: stable operation at low speed, suitable for occasions with high-speed response requirements
  5. Timeliness, the dynamic corresponding time of motor acceleration and deceleration is short
  6. Comfort: fever and noise are significantly reduced